Directions (Q. 1– 10):Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Just before dusk, on the plains of India’s northern region, 30-year-old woman farmer Harsukh kaur sprinkles mustard oil, turmeric, and raw sugar inside a ten-inch circle traced in the rich soil. Hands clasped, head bowed, she prays for a bountiful supply of ground water. Then she cranks a wheezing diesel engine, lines up a drill over the offerings, and releases a lever that brings an iron cylinder crashing into the earth. Indeed, the ground here in India’s fertile breadbasket is beginning to look like Swiss cheese. On either side of Kaur’s drill the calm beauty of emerald rice paddies belies a catastrophe brewing hundreds of feet beneath the surface. As the water table drops dangerously low, farmers are investing heavily – and often going into debt – to bore deeper wells and install more powerful pumps. A prayer might just be the best chance for survival. Her state has only 1.5 percent of India’s land, but its output of rice and wheat accounts for 50 percent of the grain the government purchases to feed more than 400 million poor Indians. Experts say the 375-foot-deep tube well and 7.5-horsepower pump Kaur is installing for a farmer is at the eye of a storm that threatens India’s food security, environmental health, and economic progress. According to an expert on soil and water “We have depleted the ground water to such an extent that it is devastating the country,” Expert also estimates that the energy used to subsidize rice production in the region costs $381 million a year. He and other experts warn that, if left unchecked, future drilling will bleed state budgets, parch aquifers, and run farmers out of business.
The problem is not only that farmers are mining aquifers faster than they can be replenished. As water levels drop, pumps are also sapping an already fragile and overtaxed electricity grid. And because farmers in this state pay nothing for electricity, they run their pumps with abandon, which further depletes the water table. All these issues are interconnected. That’s exactly what Harsukh kaur hopes to do: get politicians, farmers, and bureaucrats to sign on to reforms that will save billions of dollars and reduce the amount of water pumped out of the ground. A pilot program for his nationwide scheme is expected to launch early this year. Farmers will receive new, efficient pumps with meters and prepaid electricity credits allowing them to draw roughly the same amount of water they use now and either pocket the savings if they pump less or pay to pump more. Utilities will be required to upgrade transmission lines to cut losses and improve service. The program comes at considerable cost but promises great savings. Unlike many experts who say the answer to India’s water and energy problems is to charge farmers the real cost of electricity, But India’s power sector loses as much as $9 billion a year subsidizing farmers’ use of electric pumps. That’s half of what the country spends on health and twice what it spends on education. Thus it’s a classic example of bad economic policies having serious environmental consequences.
1. Indian northern agriculture is facing the serious problem of –––
1) Economic progress
3) Water table drops
4) Rich soil
5) None of these
2. What are the undue advantages taken by the farmers as given in the passage ?
1) Unconscientious use of electricity.
2) The farmers who have availed of crop loan from the banks are not interested in returning of these loans.
3) There are many cases in which the farmers disposes of his surplus produce.
4) Rough use of water resources.
5) None of these
3. Which term is used to describe for “a temporary peaceful time of farmers” ?
1) Crank a wheezing diesel.
2) Catastrophe brewing.
3) The eye of a storm.
4) Swiss cheese
5) None of these
4. Which of the following statement is true as given in the passage?
1) Basic human work for tilling, harvesting and processing, together with rain-fed irrigation, none of which involve an
input from an external fuel source.
2) Agriculture is itself an energy conversion process.
3) Some farming generally relies on techniques to expand and maintain the lands.
4) All of the above.
5) None of these.
5. Which best describes a pilot program -1) It means a program to study the growth, cultivation or marketing of industrial or hemp.
2) It states that lack of cultivation of industrial hem under the laws of the state.
3) Fresh products were likely consumed relatively close to where they were produced.
4) Either 1 or 2.
5) None of these.
Direction (Q. 6 – 7) : Choose the word which is most SIMILAR in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the
1) Guts 2) Dampen 3) Unproductive 4) Enfeeble 5) Spurt
1) Restored 2) Dredge 3) Eruption 4) Tenuous 5) Midsection
Direction (Q. 8 –10) : Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word printed in bold as
used in the passage.
1) Moisten 2) Gather 3) Paunch 4) Miserable 5) Discharge
1) Impair 2) Rush 3) Meagre 4) Subvert 5) Spot
1) Providing 2) Merely 3) Crippling 4) Strengthening 5) Out bursting
1.3 , 2.1 , 3.3, 4.5 , 5.1 , 6.5 , 7.1 , 8.2 , 9.3 , 10.4